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蛋白質完全指南!增肌的 3 種關鍵胺基酸、每天以及每餐要吃多少?我的 3 大攝取策略

一次回答大家對蛋白質的所有問題

上一篇文章介紹到了蛋白質的重要性、合成肌肉的關鍵生理途徑,以及啟動肌肉和成的三個關鍵元素,這篇蛋白質完全攻略二部曲,就要進入重頭戲啦!我要來回答有關蛋白質最常被提起的問題:什麼食物才算是優質的蛋白質、一天要吃多少蛋白質才夠、一餐裡面要吃多少蛋白質、需不需要買像是乳清蛋白這類的蛋白質補給品?最後我會分享我今年最新的蛋白質攝取策略,大家一定要看到最後喔!

「蛋白質的攝取」這件事情,在網路上眾說紛紜且容易引起爭議的程度,應該是名列前茅,但是我覺得理性的討論有助於事實的釐清,所以各位營養師、醫師、和教練朋友們,如果您有不同意的或想補充的,相當歡迎您在留言區指教,我一定會好好拜讀,把您的寶貴意見補充上來。

好,這篇文章一開始,我要先回答一個大家討論最多的問題之一:那些食物可以稱得上是「優質」的蛋白質。

如何定義高品質的蛋白質?

身為理工宅,一定要先把定義搞清楚,所以我找到一篇 2022 年的綜述,把目前所有評價蛋白質品質的方法,從頭到尾講了一次,竟然有八種方法啊,真是看得我老眼昏花。

首先從定義講起好了,優質的蛋白質來源總共有三個要素:

第一:是否具備前面提到的,人體需要的九種必需胺基酸

第二:我們人體對這些必需胺基酸的消化率

第三:這些可被消化的必需胺基酸,是否符合不同年齡族群的需求量

依照以上這三個要素,聯合國糧農組織在 2013 年推出了一個最新的蛋白質評價方法,叫做 Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS),取代舊的 PDCAAS。

但這個指標對營養科學家來說可能有用,對一般人來說根本一點意義都沒有,大家可以看看這個表,光搞懂就花了我不少時間,但就算搞懂了,能查到這個分數的食物也太少,就算知道了分數,也很難用在日常生活上。

所以這裡我採用另一個世界級的蛋白質專家:Donald Layman 教授提倡的方式。

他建議我們只要確保每天攝取的食物組合裡面,含有足量的三種必需胺基酸,就能確保肌肉的合成,這三種就是我一開始要大家記起來的:Leucine,Lysine,Metheonine,中文分別是白胺酸離胺酸、以及甲硫胺酸(或是蛋胺酸)。

為什麼合成肌肉只看這三種胺基酸?

在所有的胺基酸裡面,有兩種會啟動上一篇文章講到的,身體細胞總承包商:mTOR,一個是人體可以自行合成的 Arginine 精胺酸,另一個就是 Leucine 白胺酸了。

David Sabatini 的實驗室因為發現了 Sestrin2 這個白胺酸的感測器,研究結果登上了 Science 期刊

Donald Layman 教授進一步指出,一個成年人大概需要 3 克的白胺酸,才能啟動肌肉中的 mTOR 路徑,讓肌肉從分解狀態轉換成合成狀態。

3 克的白胺酸對大多數人吃的食物來說,大概就是 25~30 克的蛋白質。所以 Layman 博士建議,每天的第一餐最好就一次攝取 30 克以上的蛋白質。

離胺酸以及甲硫胺酸這兩種必需胺基酸,則是食物裡面最受到限制的,尤其是甲硫胺酸,幾乎所有的植物性蛋白質裡含量都很少。

所以只要確保一天內能攝取 3-4 克的離氨酸,以及 1 克左右的甲硫胺酸,再加上每天的第一餐和最後一餐都有 3 克的白胺酸,那一天的蛋白質就足夠啟動 mTOR,並且有材料合成肌肉了。

我在這邊也幫大家把奶蛋魚肉豆以及穀類的這三種氨基酸含量都列出來讓大家參考。

分類名稱熱量(kcal)水分(g)粗蛋白(g)粗脂肪(g)飽和脂肪(g)總碳水化合物(g)甲硫胺酸(Met)(mg)白胺酸(Leu)(mg)離胺酸(Lys)(mg)
豆類黃豆388.911.335.615.72.433.0392.22699.12136.0
豆類青仁黑豆384.810.637.014.22.333.7317.32729.12275.6
豆類米豆349.110.521.72.40.962.2237.21651.41448.7
豆類綠豆344.510.122.81.10.463.0210.31833.41646.8
豆類鷹嘴豆364.011.019.45.81.161.0196.01454.21101.6
豆類白鳳豆平均值336.612.723.82.10.358.2195.91617.81154.6
豆類花豆328.414.721.21.70.459.0177.41586.31354.0
豆類黃仁黑豆253.233.520.62.10.540.3173.91765.51599.8
豆類毛豆仁129.367.914.63.30.912.5150.31075.1805.4
豆類紅扁豆仁342.812.425.32.10.558.3134.41704.31472.5
豆類紅豆328.013.920.90.60.261.5126.11669.91619.9
豆類鹽酥蠶豆456.42.726.920.96.446.3119.11688.41447.5
豆類樹豆(白)325.414.422.10.80.359.4110.91507.71380.8
豆類萊豆仁112.470.17.80.40.220.158.9472.3361.0
豆類豆漿60.086.33.21.30.39.034.5218.3183.2
豆類豆漿(無糖)35.093.33.61.90.40.734.1224.1195.1
豆類豌豆仁123.467.89.20.421.729.0355.6339.8
豆類豇豆(莢)34.590.82.40.10.16.219.7136.6122.9
豆類雞蛋豆漿55.787.41.91.30.29.218.2139.1117.3
豆類敏豆莢29.792.21.70.20.15.312.089.082.0
豆類豌豆莢40.689.22.90.20.17.110.3106.6119.7
豆類翼豆30.791.82.50.40.34.72.1103.182.4
豆製品豆腐皮209.459.625.311.01.72.4349.32453.41874.8
豆製品日式炸豆皮388.042.019.232.45.14.9244.51603.01241.0
豆製品五香豆干196.861.319.310.61.76.2233.51632.31227.8
豆製品黑豆干197.164.719.012.52.22.1205.41550.31275.9
豆製品小方豆干161.067.317.48.61.33.5171.91470.11086.0
豆製品小三角油豆腐159.775.612.713.32.30.0163.01133.5878.5
豆製品百頁豆腐196.466.013.413.12.16.3135.01214.8892.7
豆製品傳統豆腐(2022年取樣)95.782.09.65.51.01.988.8711.3539.6
豆製品嫩豆腐53.189.94.93.00.51.663.9374.5300.0
穀物類紅藜378.912.212.16.70.966.8410.8335.9300.7
穀物類小麥胚芽417.04.231.411.61.747.9393.11994.61995.7
穀物類薏仁378.511.514.16.10.966.2251.11529.9383.0
穀物類糙米粉392.75.911.33.278.1239.0892.0341.0
穀物類糙薏仁386.911.013.77.41.165.9236.21843.3255.6
穀物類小米370.212.311.33.70.471.7231.6771.8146.7
穀物類燕麥片393.410.112.39.764.1215.01015.0536.0
穀物類小麥361.612.614.12.60.569.2184.91023.9396.9
穀物類秈米(台中在來2號)354.813.98.21.076.3184.0679.0313.0
穀物類薏仁粉394.84.710.93.50.580.0179.01164.6160.6
穀物類蕎麥(甜蕎)360.813.211.02.90.671.3177.9753.8687.6
穀物類黑秈糯米357.414.810.13.50.970.1176.0791.9376.4
穀物類秈米平均值356.613.47.80.90.477.4167.0642.4281.3
穀物類米胚芽390.911.417.012.73.052.9163.6929.8741.9
穀物類白粳糯米(台粳糯1號粳米)357.713.58.21.176.8161.0664.0265.0
穀物類紅糯米361.713.19.92.80.772.6154.0805.9374.4
穀物類野生紅米359.713.77.72.60.674.7152.7574.1261.1
穀物類秈米(台中秈10號)358.313.07.40.70.378.5150.1605.7249.6
穀物類白粳糯米平均值358.213.18.30.80.277.4149.9662.1259.9
穀物類通心麵358.511.513.81.40.372.6149.8944.0262.5
穀物類中筋麵粉361.012.611.51.30.374.1149.0897.8267.4
穀物類粳米(台中189號)355.613.57.50.60.178.1148.8604.4233.5
穀物類白秈糯米(台中糯70號秈米)361.412.47.90.90.278.4147.8671.9263.3
穀物類全麥麵粉359.312.713.01.70.371.4144.81008.4362.5
穀物類即食燕麥片406.39.111.99.61.767.9144.5891.5461.6
穀物類加鈣米355.113.67.40.70.277.7143.9625.2239.2
穀物類發芽粳米(台粳71號)356.714.87.42.80.673.9140.1597.2291.7
穀物類紅蘿蔔麵352.112.012.11.00.273.8139.4947.5260.4
穀物類白粳糯米(台中189號粳米)358.612.88.40.50.178.0138.9660.3254.7
穀物類粳米(高雄145號)364.411.86.81.00.380.0137.7572.4241.1
穀物類雞絲麵463.06.39.422.87.255.0135.6677.7141.3
穀物類粳米(台農71號)356.613.37.90.60.277.8135.5543.6239.1
穀物類油麵條361.59.011.41.20.476.3135.1889.8247.3
穀物類麵線349.812.011.71.50.472.4135.0884.0246.0
穀物類蕎麥麵(乾)354.912.212.71.70.570.6134.7854.1363.5
穀物類燕麥406.010.010.910.21.967.4134.5845.7483.1
穀物類粳米(高雄142號)352.514.37.00.677.7134.0559.0235.0
穀物類五穀米358.314.38.72.90.872.9132.9727.6378.9
穀物類糯小米360.212.912.51.50.372.5132.81615.3127.4
穀物類雞蛋麵357.810.412.50.90.274.8128.6961.2271.0
穀物類菠菜條355.611.511.81.20.374.4128.0948.3259.2
穀物類糙秈米358.714.47.33.20.873.6126.9536.9281.9
穀物類蚵仔麵線307.017.311.31.40.362.3125.5780.9174.5
穀物類乾麵條356.710.811.51.40.474.6123.6823.5240.4
穀物類麵腸137.967.520.61.90.49.7121.11395.6337.9
穀物類鍋燒意麵479.05.810.022.84.158.5118.7825.9262.9
穀物類大麥仁粉388.85.77.11.30.485.0117.0640.2269.1
穀物類意麵289.626.810.11.060.1115.2682.0197.8
穀物類乾玉米粒373.011.910.93.90.672.2114.71358.9263.5
穀物類雜糧中筋麵粉360.911.713.12.30.672.0114.2798.9293.2
穀物類粳米(台南11號)348.315.46.70.50.277.2113.7587.7252.9
穀物類長麵線309.916.410.71.10.364.3113.5751.2203.0
穀物類發芽粳米平均值354.914.87.82.30.574.0113.4561.6284.9
穀物類胚芽粳米(台粳10號)360.413.17.31.70.577.2113.3603.9265.0
穀物類粳米平均值354.014.17.00.70.277.8111.6558.5230.2
穀物類胚芽粳米平均值361.712.78.21.60.576.8111.2619.4259.0
穀物類胚芽粳米(台粳9號)363.112.39.11.50.476.5109.2634.9253.0
穀物類高梁371.811.311.03.00.773.6108.01452.2188.2
穀物類高筋麵粉(2021年取樣)362.212.313.81.30.572.2106.5958.0257.4
穀物類大麥片364.612.18.61.80.576.7106.3653.9311.6
穀物類拉麵292.326.69.10.862.1105.5600.1177.2
穀物類粳米(台粳2號)356.713.27.20.50.178.7105.3575.3225.4
穀物類越光米339.517.87.61.00.273.3103.2530.4212.8
穀物類粳米(台粳9號)353.214.36.60.60.278.2101.5559.4220.0
穀物類糙粳米(台粳9號)364.312.57.42.30.676.699.9602.0275.0
穀物類玉米胚芽365.911.57.00.90.180.398.6983.8134.4
穀物類胚芽秈米(台中秈10號)363.012.38.32.10.576.197.5613.3290.6
穀物類發芽粳米(台粳9號)353.114.88.21.90.574.186.7526.0278.2
穀物類刀削麵266.633.58.40.90.456.286.2619.8175.1
穀物類粳米(台粳8號)355.213.56.90.40.178.886.0538.5221.7
穀物類米粉平均值366.310.92.10.885.385.8365.4160.8
穀物類濁水米粉357.211.35.31.381.185.8365.4160.8
穀物類白糯米粉359.912.64.50.40.182.382.0407.6176.3
穀物類糯玉米172.259.14.71.90.533.478.6609.4189.5
穀物類衛生油麵163.261.25.51.80.331.274.9377.8105.8
穀物類蕎麥麵(濕)155.163.16.31.50.328.671.8463.4276.7
穀物類秈米粉363.211.94.20.40.183.471.8369.2154.7
穀物類雙色水果玉米105.476.23.12.60.717.570.0342.3146.9
穀物類大麥仁364.611.78.61.60.577.166.2587.4288.1
穀物類水餃皮263.533.07.80.50.057.065.5593.0168.5
穀物類白飯183.155.63.10.30.141.065.0275.8116.2
穀物類春捲皮240.838.98.30.70.050.464.1564.0167.0
穀物類金門黃麵158.060.16.40.50.131.962.5411.2142.0
穀物類糯高梁362.312.110.71.00.275.760.81570.7125.6
穀物類高纖米362.712.88.32.50.575.260.1667.3321.2
穀物類黑麥片359.212.57.81.20.377.359.6506.1197.4
穀物類糙粳米平均值362.313.18.22.50.675.159.1455.9309.7
穀物類鍋燒麵119.870.44.50.40.124.653.9293.191.5
穀物類粳米(高雄139號)357.213.76.11.20.378.550.3514.6220.8
穀物類餛飩皮271.031.48.30.50.058.245.4589.9172.2
穀物類低筋麵粉363.612.08.11.20.278.243.2596.7207.6
穀物類紫玉米167.959.44.51.00.334.442.8532.4151.0
穀物類粳米(高雄139號)(2021年取樣)352.314.45.70.50.279.241.0432.4168.1
穀物類甜玉米106.975.73.32.50.717.833.8324.3115.8
穀物類玉米粒罐頭90.078.32.31.40.316.931.2244.879.5
穀物類冷凍烏龍麵128.667.73.40.30.128.225.5230.371.2
穀物類糙粳米(台粳71號)360.413.69.02.60.573.618.3309.8344.4
穀物類玉米筍30.991.12.20.30.25.813.1114.8120.9
穀物類雜糧高筋麵粉360.312.414.32.80.869.60.0866.7306.5
堅果及種子類調味南瓜子(去殼)561.52.830.447.99.113.5557.82286.11262.4
堅果及種子類原味葵瓜子(去殼)586.44.022.051.95.118.7406.6155.9895.8
堅果及種子類奇亞子483.37.221.731.83.334.8380.91244.0926.6
堅果及種子類黑芝麻(熟)(2022年取樣)591.11.020.751.88.321.1310.31379.9514.5
堅果及種子類生鮮花生仁505.99.928.838.58.120.6293.42260.01115.8
堅果及種子類白芝麻(熟)2022年取樣)600.71.421.752.48.421.2276.81530.5571.6
堅果及種子類亞麻仁籽524.27.620.840.34.328.1261.01377.3893.8
堅果及種子類開心果600.81.122.452.75.820.1259.31351.9972.3
堅果及種子類紅土帶殼花生(熟)555.01.431.243.99.119.5257.92079.81008.9
堅果及種子類原味腰果566.02.216.443.710.335.2196.71365.2973.3
堅果及種子類生核桃667.43.715.467.96.111.2189.61148.4467.5
堅果及種子類原味夏威夷豆699.81.27.571.612.218.277.2448.5314.8
堅果及種子類帶殼花生(生鮮)330.843.715.327.27.312.265.8926.6492.6
堅果及種子類原味榛果671.61.113.066.55.717.261.4848.9339.4
堅果及種子類糖炒栗子209.647.64.20.80.246.345.8289.0246.9
堅果及種子類栗子(生)263.934.34.61.40.357.942.6268.8241.7
堅果及種子類栗子仁(生)176.555.93.70.70.138.719.2250.6208.8
堅果及種子類甘扁桃仁(熟)587.91.921.949.84.223.20.01356.7556.3
堅果及種子類原味松子仁680.41.014.569.06.813.00.0827.1451.3

分類名稱熱量(kcal)水分(g)粗蛋白(g)粗脂肪(g)飽和脂肪(g)總碳水化合物(g)甲硫胺酸(Met)(mg)白胺酸(Leu)(mg)離胺酸(Lys)(mg)
牛肉牛修清前胸肉120.572.922.32.81.30.9704.32322.32360.7
牛肉去骨紐約克牛排199.669.421.312.05.90.0554.31810.81905.8
牛肉板腱牛排166.370.019.89.03.20.2533.11668.51868.4
牛肉沙朗牛排162.068.820.48.34.31.5515.51811.41938.5
牛肉腓力牛排184.267.520.610.75.30.1510.11675.41728.8
牛肉牛後腿肉121.971.519.44.32.23.7468.41799.01942.0
牛肉牛肉火鍋片平均值250.361.319.118.78.90.0462.91556.71618.8
牛肉牛小排平均值325.057.715.128.913.10.0433.31467.11526.3
牛肉牛後腿腱子心(2022年取樣)151.165.823.75.52.34.0430.31584.01643.3
牛肉牛肋條(2021年取樣)358.150.915.732.316.00.3319.91293.71354.2
牛肉牛筋157.367.321.77.21.83.3269.6924.2824.9
牛肉牛肚平均值55.887.411.40.80.40.1141.5824.6674.0
禽肉火雞肉140.672.321.15.62.10.0667.01816.01998.0
禽肉烤雞232.958.222.814.24.23.6651.92051.62177.3
禽肉太空鴨(去皮)101.978.620.11.80.60.0618.91846.32198.7
禽肉去皮清肉(土雞)120.875.323.42.30.70.0598.51792.51904.0
禽肉雞絞肉131.371.327.41.60.60.0592.91920.22047.4
禽肉土番鴨110.975.620.92.40.70.0576.01763.01890.0
禽肉鴨胗97.377.220.51.10.40.3571.41539.61484.3
禽肉鵝胸肉120.373.023.52.20.70.2557.71853.51845.4
禽肉骨腿(土雞)129.674.821.74.11.20.0556.31811.21967.6
禽肉去皮清肉平均值(雞胸肉)118.874.123.32.10.60.0553.31792.91922.9
禽肉帶骨去皮對切胸(肉雞)103.877.022.40.90.30.0534.01354.01452.0
禽肉翅腿(肉雞)209.765.817.814.84.01.0518.91585.81676.2
禽肉去皮清肉(肉雞)116.873.023.31.90.60.6508.11793.31941.8
禽肉烏骨雞212.265.417.915.14.20.9503.21531.91615.6
禽肉熟鵝腿肉291.956.718.523.66.70.0494.01499.01619.0
禽肉帶骨帶皮對切胸(肉雞)218.668.419.315.14.50.0489.81489.81580.3
禽肉番鴨228.865.518.216.75.40.0483.21506.01561.9
禽肉鵝腿肉130.475.621.74.21.10.0482.01586.01613.6
禽肉清腿(肉雞)172.871.416.611.33.30.0469.51343.11452.9
禽肉骨腿平均值162.871.618.09.52.70.2468.31494.31602.3
禽肉鵝肉187.566.815.613.43.52.4449.01208.01272.0
禽肉清腿平均值157.572.918.58.72.50.0443.21203.11288.0
禽肉三節翅(肉雞)222.266.417.716.34.80.0442.21311.21388.4
禽肉二節翅(土雞)228.066.819.815.94.10.0442.01293.01340.0
禽肉三節翅平均值210.367.818.314.64.10.0440.61291.61371.7
禽肉三節翅(土雞)198.469.219.013.03.40.0439.01272.01355.0
禽肉二節翅平均值225.666.118.116.44.40.0418.31225.11274.4
禽肉清腿(土雞)142.174.420.46.11.70.0417.01063.01123.0
禽肉棒棒腿(肉雞)159.572.416.89.72.90.3413.51191.01263.3
禽肉棒棒腿平均值151.273.018.97.82.20.0406.81118.51192.2
禽肉雞胗(肉雞)89.080.416.62.00.60.3403.51184.61115.0
禽肉肉雞248.265.016.119.95.20.0400.61244.41328.9
禽肉棒棒腿(土雞)142.973.721.05.91.60.0400.01046.01121.0
禽肉櫻桃鴨胸肉片226.560.416.717.24.54.7399.01340.21350.9
禽肉二節翅(肉雞)223.265.416.417.04.80.6394.61157.21208.8
禽肉雞肝(肉雞)111.373.918.83.51.52.7382.31363.91155.1
禽肉土雞196.069.419.012.73.20.0380.71237.31243.5
禽肉骨腿(肉雞)195.968.314.414.94.21.7380.31177.41237.0
禽肉雞膝軟骨(肉雞)107.175.520.42.20.70.5349.31437.11303.6
禽肉鴨腿282.257.114.424.57.73.4337.21067.61109.3
禽肉雞排平均值183.271.017.112.23.70.0326.01159.51234.1
禽肉去皮去骨雞腿(肉雞)164.773.419.88.92.40.0320.01428.41568.7
禽肉雞排(肉雞)(2021年取樣)251.164.214.920.85.80.0300.31224.01273.9
禽肉雞排(土雞)158.372.618.98.62.50.0283.01276.01364.0
禽肉雞腳(肉雞)208.564.220.713.32.91.2266.6829.8820.8
禽肉雞睪丸70.785.210.62.81.20.2236.8799.5719.6
禽肉雞心(肉雞)(2021年取樣)204.467.814.415.84.41.2207.4996.7878.2
禽肉雞尾椎452.344.79.045.913.00.1143.4656.7609.4
禽肉雞皮(肉雞)441.746.211.743.411.20.078.3508.9527.7
禽肉鴨血28.893.76.00.30.10.037.6315.4256.2
禽肉去骨鴨掌113.581.412.66.61.50.024.7524.3503.0
羊肉山羊前腿肉片122.575.321.33.51.70.0543.01706.01793.0
羊肉山羊後腿肉火鍋片170.470.218.99.95.20.1484.91592.31745.2
羊肉去骨肩頸眼羊肉198.170.617.813.56.30.0482.91504.51670.2
羊肉綿羊腹脅肉火鍋片252.459.716.920.09.92.5405.01363.81576.7
羊肉小羊腰脊肉143.075.226.53.31.60.0399.31674.51721.9
羊肉山羊帶皮羊肉塊164.466.820.38.64.33.4367.31292.91434.8
羊肉法式羊排260.260.618.820.011.00.0262.41175.61278.6
豬肉僧帽肌208.667.320.413.55.60.0762.42504.42633.1
豬肉膽肝(粉肝)251.540.331.27.93.413.9670.02755.02157.0
豬肉豬後腿瘦肉120.474.221.13.41.20.3585.91777.31871.8
豬肉里肌肉平均值109.175.524.20.60.20.0581.41787.21969.6
豬肉醃燻豬肝166.561.126.84.71.84.2567.52442.91906.5
豬肉豬後腿肉122.874.220.44.01.50.4561.61708.21832.3
豬肉豬下肩瘦肉131.274.920.15.01.90.0550.31714.31816.3
豬肉豬小里肌139.372.821.15.42.20.0527.21650.61670.5
豬肉豬後腳292.866.919.523.26.80.0524.71635.21736.0
豬肉豬大排214.265.819.114.75.90.0523.01443.01489.0
豬肉豬大里肌211.765.319.214.45.40.0517.51581.01621.2
豬肉豬上肩肉207.066.718.914.05.50.0512.61564.91669.2
豬肉豬前腿外腱肉146.573.620.76.52.30.0504.61584.61666.9
豬肉豬後腿外腱肉184.067.819.011.44.40.8503.21567.51654.2
豬肉豬肝136.570.720.85.32.41.7476.41854.71454.8
豬肉豬下肩肉200.067.818.113.65.00.0458.11410.41504.0
豬肉豬小排287.457.718.023.39.60.0451.41343.21414.7
豬肉豬肝連219.968.614.617.57.00.0441.81402.91404.3
豬肉豬舌185.169.118.511.84.30.0440.61441.81420.9
豬肉豬頸肉283.857.917.223.38.40.8428.11403.91493.6
豬肉豬腹脇排266.963.618.720.79.00.0425.21800.61974.6
豬肉滷豬腳237.458.628.415.46.90.0408.01402.01466.0
豬肉豬肩胛肉294.760.116.524.89.80.0405.81384.81467.4
豬肉豬帶皮腹脇肉368.251.914.533.913.50.0399.91269.11287.7
豬肉豬絞肉平均值211.667.318.714.65.40.0384.11331.21415.1
豬肉豬去皮腹脇肉360.051.014.932.912.80.5383.91154.91187.2
豬肉豬蹄膀331.054.517.128.610.60.0375.01011.01091.0
豬肉豬頰肉(2022年取樣)157.069.518.98.42.42.1351.41335.61393.3
豬肉豬前腳252.061.221.917.65.50.0346.61530.11605.5
豬肉豬心128.076.813.67.83.01.0343.41220.61056.0
豬肉豬肩胛排(2021年取樣)244.463.017.818.77.10.0317.51426.01493.4
豬肉豬肚152.076.312.411.04.60.0293.6896.6730.8
豬肉豬皮490.935.522.144.014.50.0274.6938.81049.6
豬肉豬小腸156.075.012.511.47.20.6262.2963.7845.2
豬肉豬尾294.951.116.225.08.77.1260.6960.41003.4
豬肉豬耳218.961.524.212.84.30.9248.2992.9969.6
豬肉豬大腸198.272.26.618.99.91.9213.6641.2560.8
豬肉豬軟骨332.058.115.629.411.10.0201.51059.91121.8
豬肉豬腦124.679.210.88.73.70.0195.0534.0580.0
豬肉豬腳筋71.686.114.41.10.20.038.4515.1526.6
豬肉豬血29.492.46.30.30.10.529.4413.1277.9
豬肉豬白管92.684.214.13.61.60.00.0946.0313.4
魚貝類烏鯧94.278.020.40.80.40.0772.01940.02188.0
魚貝類白帶魚161.877.619.68.74.00.0755.01884.02127.0
魚貝類鬍鯰194.168.916.313.85.30.0751.0387.01547.0
魚貝類雙帶鰺118.274.422.62.41.00.0732.01849.02092.0
魚貝類小黃魚(含皮)155.677.719.48.12.80.0718.61846.22091.8
魚貝類血斑異大眼鯛93.477.720.60.60.20.0711.01811.02071.0
魚貝類旗魚腹肉104.777.022.21.10.40.0705.32034.42249.3
魚貝類金線魚119.076.320.93.31.50.0688.01740.02092.0
魚貝類花腹鯖138.170.523.94.01.50.1687.01791.02008.0
魚貝類大目鮪103.574.523.90.10.00.0669.41775.52018.4
魚貝類斯氏長鰭烏魴96.676.022.40.10.00.0667.01738.01977.0
魚貝類藍圓鰺114.173.324.01.30.50.0664.21683.61908.2
魚貝類花尾唇指翁(翁加魚邊)115.574.719.83.41.30.6655.61741.22002.6
魚貝類醃漬鮭魚卵218.255.724.910.22.16.7655.62383.51868.0
魚貝類大西洋鮭魚(台灣養殖)154.971.923.66.01.70.0653.71726.71818.2
魚貝類前鱗笛鯛101.374.922.00.80.40.9639.11776.92007.2
魚貝類正鰹149.170.823.15.61.70.0638.01779.01941.0
魚貝類條紋狼鱸146.873.621.46.21.60.0634.61687.21950.0
魚貝類旗魚切片110.971.826.00.00.00.8631.71684.41827.3
魚貝類駝背鱸82.780.118.10.60.30.0630.01616.01899.0
魚貝類雙線鬚鰨92.277.719.90.80.30.3629.01719.01828.0
魚貝類星雞魚98.576.720.61.20.50.4628.01699.11921.6
魚貝類泰勃圓鰺112.672.822.81.70.61.4627.31675.91818.2
魚貝類日本竹筴魚116.474.523.02.00.70.0626.91825.92180.0
魚貝類北方長額蝦(加工)122.070.919.94.10.92.7626.71335.21299.4
魚貝類杜氏鰤115.074.121.92.40.90.2623.81694.21962.0
魚貝類臺灣馬加鰆180.168.520.210.44.70.0619.01593.01947.0
魚貝類青星九刺鮨魚片103.777.122.60.80.40.0619.01717.81842.7
魚貝類紅蟳121.767.120.93.61.86.5618.01563.01333.0
魚貝類白緣星鱠101.078.219.91.80.80.0614.11675.21931.6
魚貝類秋刀魚276.654.318.821.85.64.1613.01569.01650.0
魚貝類鮪魚生魚片100.476.123.30.10.00.0611.01574.01836.0
魚貝類斑帶石斑魚90.579.620.20.50.20.0610.21615.71856.1
魚貝類赤鰭笛鯛88.078.820.40.10.0610.01453.01719.0
魚貝類高麗馬加鰆118.675.019.44.01.60.3608.01718.51917.2
魚貝類橫紋九刺鮨85.380.119.30.30.10.0607.61629.71913.1
魚貝類青星九刺鮨平均值93.578.020.90.50.20.0606.51389.91791.9
魚貝類日本花鱸平均值97.976.719.91.50.40.9604.51629.91669.5
魚貝類范氏副葉鰺108.373.420.92.11.02.1604.41648.01860.6
魚貝類斑鱵91.077.720.60.30.10.3604.31705.81925.4
魚貝類斑海鯰86.079.619.20.50.20.0604.31719.41917.4
魚貝類草魚切片166.467.221.48.32.02.1603.81621.01900.7
魚貝類葉唇笛鯛118.177.119.93.71.70.0596.91560.81761.2
魚貝類金鱗魚84.778.019.50.20.11.3596.51596.81789.8
魚貝類青星九刺鮨83.378.819.30.10.00.5594.01062.01741.0
魚貝類花身鯻157.272.019.58.22.80.0592.01577.01750.0
魚貝類真鯛平均值(去皮)110.175.520.62.50.90.2589.11569.31688.5
魚貝類大甲鰺105.074.821.21.60.70.4589.01635.01892.0
魚貝類斑點雞籠鯧96.979.021.90.40.10.0587.11613.21770.1
魚貝類白馬頭魚91.078.419.21.00.40.1587.01531.01826.0
魚貝類日本玻璃蝦82.676.316.21.50.42.0585.81135.91108.2
魚貝類環紋簑鮋79.580.818.40.10.00.0584.01578.01781.0
魚貝類青嘴龍占魚127.973.322.73.41.20.0583.91740.21965.8
魚貝類長鰭鰤魚114.471.122.81.90.92.7583.51894.32077.9
魚貝類克氏兔頭魨76.980.817.80.10.00.0582.01549.01776.0
魚貝類白姑魚96.578.218.81.80.80.0582.01404.01693.0
魚貝類棕點石斑魚115.376.919.13.71.40.0581.11677.11851.5
魚貝類鮸魚卵(加工)184.161.621.910.12.43.6581.01863.51499.6
魚貝類白鱸76.579.817.70.10.01.0581.01581.01678.0
魚貝類中國對蝦84.277.919.30.20.11.0581.01541.01672.0
魚貝類松鯛98.578.218.22.31.00.1580.01504.01757.0
魚貝類刺鯧(含皮)154.572.517.88.73.60.0573.21502.81663.3
魚貝類大口黑鱸130.075.420.74.61.20.0572.31497.01737.1
魚貝類斑點九刺鮨(去皮)81.778.918.80.20.9569.81675.41877.5
魚貝類尖嘴鱸(含皮)107.177.619.62.61.00.0569.01570.01709.0
魚貝類大黃魚142.174.316.87.82.90.2568.41463.61542.7
魚貝類香魚146.875.118.57.52.70.0568.01481.01536.0
魚貝類馬拉巴笛鯛86.379.220.20.00.00.0567.41531.61780.5
魚貝類海鱺189.377.420.411.35.20.0567.01461.01648.0
魚貝類海鱺魚片260.261.219.319.76.00.0567.01668.41832.2
魚貝類鯔平均值(去皮)152.470.920.67.12.30.3566.41620.31677.0
魚貝類阿部牙鯛123.775.118.94.81.90.0565.31480.41683.5
魚貝類日本龍蝦92.775.721.50.10.01.0564.01392.01509.0
魚貝類石狗公80.081.118.30.20.00.0559.61518.01733.7
魚貝類銀鯧平均值(去皮)115.076.417.74.42.00.2553.71498.01490.6
魚貝類斑點九刺鮨(含皮)83.879.919.40.10.10.0552.91515.21802.8
魚貝類草對蝦100.275.322.00.70.31.0549.01550.01595.0
魚貝類鰆魚卵192.564.523.510.22.90.2547.92017.81639.5
魚貝類隆脊管鞭蝦96.275.322.10.20.10.6546.01520.01548.0
魚貝類刺鯧(去皮)94.678.218.81.60.60.1539.81450.41646.6
魚貝類鞍帶石斑魚片155.471.419.18.22.90.2539.51436.61632.4
魚貝類花身副麗魚112.576.117.74.11.41.1537.51479.11657.9
魚貝類日本紅目大眼鯛97.279.319.61.50.50.0537.01387.01590.0
魚貝類紅色吳郭魚107.876.118.33.31.11.3536.81399.31583.7
魚貝類草魚(含皮)91.578.817.22.00.50.8530.01523.01670.0
魚貝類斑鱧118.776.318.34.51.20.0529.01446.01745.0
魚貝類日本對蝦(小)96.374.520.90.80.21.8521.81517.91479.8
魚貝類康氏馬加鰆切片(含皮)176.367.719.310.45.11.5514.51625.31857.7
魚貝類深海鱗角魚80.081.017.70.50.20.0514.11545.11737.6
魚貝類無斑圓鰺119.273.523.91.90.70.0512.01282.01447.0
魚貝類103.676.723.30.50.20.0508.71608.01792.6
魚貝類鬚赤蝦92.176.020.70.40.10.6507.41330.11396.9
魚貝類布氏鯧鰺(含皮)190.269.617.512.85.50.0507.01357.01489.0
魚貝類白對蝦(大)109.274.822.31.50.50.0502.81572.01663.8
魚貝類眼斑擬石首魚94.677.019.71.20.40.9494.41349.31500.3
魚貝類大口鰜切片(含皮)166.574.114.711.52.40.0486.01318.01539.0
魚貝類香螺86.078.919.90.10.00.0485.31920.61491.5
魚貝類台灣鎖管71.980.816.00.40.21.6480.01235.01133.0
魚貝類尼羅口孵非鯽(含皮)(2022年取樣)121.871.720.43.91.03.0478.61542.41741.7
魚貝類鬼頭刀魚片77.881.317.20.50.20.0477.91426.21620.8
魚貝類鬼頭刀106.676.021.81.50.50.0474.01651.01941.0
魚貝類泥螺94.676.921.50.30.10.3469.01310.21015.5
魚貝類藍對蝦95.277.220.90.60.20.0466.91397.51528.0
魚貝類尖鎖管100.174.320.21.50.72.4460.31414.71461.7
魚貝類鬚赤蝦仁79.681.417.10.70.30.0455.31242.81281.9
魚貝類虱目魚(2022年取樣)242.560.120.117.45.91.4454.11381.61551.2
魚貝類白對蝦平均值99.476.121.30.90.30.0442.11468.21478.3
魚貝類星斑真鯧213.669.015.616.34.40.0424.31134.31317.4
魚貝類台灣鯛魚片(生)(2021年)109.476.017.93.71.31.5419.61493.71676.7
魚貝類日本對蝦平均值96.875.721.30.70.20.4418.51510.71464.2
魚貝類鯖魚(生)417.045.214.439.49.10.2417.61096.31237.1
魚貝類蛙形蟹71.878.216.60.10.02.8417.01118.01132.6
魚貝類網紋龍占魚101.277.121.71.00.40.0417.01816.02099.0
魚貝類犬牙南極魚切片281.863.712.125.56.20.0414.61053.31173.9
魚貝類白對蝦(小)96.277.421.40.50.20.0414.11400.91292.0
魚貝類白對蝦(小)(2022年取樣)92.776.320.30.70.31.3409.51431.81479.2
魚貝類海鱸蝦仁73.581.016.30.40.11.3404.61425.81491.7
魚貝類象牙鳳螺78.177.016.90.70.23.6402.71300.3989.6
魚貝類真烏賊(大)61.483.613.90.30.10.8399.51181.01114.5
魚貝類正櫻蝦(熟)96.776.019.61.40.40.0398.21127.81143.8
魚貝類軟翅仔70.082.214.70.80.30.8397.01168.71038.9
魚貝類東方異腕蝦78.582.317.70.30.10.0395.81075.41096.1
魚貝類章魚60.984.613.00.60.9393.01106.0920.0
魚貝類長體油胡瓜魚103.879.815.04.40.90.0392.51203.51034.3
魚貝類90.879.114.53.20.72.1391.01163.01265.0
魚貝類日本馬頭魚85.179.618.70.60.20.0380.01401.51606.4
魚貝類鰈魚切片201.270.213.216.13.50.0370.4843.71014.6
魚貝類銀魚69.382.714.30.90.20.9367.6921.9925.6
魚貝類九孔螺73.176.215.01.00.45.8367.01014.0911.0
魚貝類鮑魚68.773.115.80.10.09.5365.41398.4929.1
魚貝類螳螂蝦66.884.014.70.50.20.0365.11072.01080.6
魚貝類胭脂蝦114.477.213.86.11.20.7363.21009.21044.8
魚貝類相模後海螯蝦79.181.617.90.30.00.0359.31208.31251.0
魚貝類大管鞭蝦87.777.419.80.30.10.6359.11264.61362.6
魚貝類正櫻蝦(生)88.479.317.91.30.40.0358.51061.71051.3
魚貝類泡魷魚50.384.611.30.20.03.0356.6906.8797.4
魚貝類低眼無齒芒魚片(芒加魚邊)75.683.414.21.70.80.0354.81125.61371.1
魚貝類眼眶魚112.675.620.32.91.30.2352.01663.51877.0
魚貝類阿根廷魷70.884.812.42.00.70.4350.31115.21016.1
魚貝類明蝦仁51.788.011.90.10.00.0341.7902.8900.1
魚貝類真烏賊平均值57.282.712.20.60.23.7336.61005.2940.6
魚貝類鯛魚下巴245.165.516.119.65.30.0329.71482.91775.5
魚貝類日本對蝦(大)97.377.021.60.50.10.0315.21503.41448.6
魚貝類干貝(冷凍)57.582.312.70.40.11.7315.2965.2864.4
魚貝類草蝦仁44.088.09.70.30.10.9314.7862.0896.8
魚貝類綠殼菜蛤95.675.817.82.20.72.6312.9793.11019.3
魚貝類羅氏沼蝦88.078.120.30.20.10.2299.31495.71652.9
魚貝類蟹腳肉52.684.211.60.30.11.2296.8819.7824.1
魚貝類鮟鱇魚肝135.874.813.68.63.21.9294.0759.8767.9
魚貝類旗魚肚99.573.822.50.42.9289.01519.01440.0
魚貝類蠑螺(加工)65.070.814.80.20.111.0289.01019.0815.0
魚貝類三線磯鱸129.873.719.05.42.30.6278.0738.0853.0
魚貝類鮪魚肚105.875.823.40.70.30.0275.21530.01430.2
魚貝類真烏賊(小)53.081.710.50.90.46.6273.6829.4766.7
魚貝類蝦夷海扇蛤69.681.113.71.20.42.3272.8848.5877.8
魚貝類西施舌52.983.28.91.60.75.4262.7659.2657.4
魚貝類紅蝦仁43.486.49.50.30.11.5261.2784.6811.3
魚貝類大頭蝦仁39.989.28.80.20.10.0257.7647.6641.3
魚貝類真牡蠣49.386.89.01.20.51.8250.2558.9578.5
魚貝類波紋橫簾蛤48.383.29.21.00.44.6216.6563.6395.7
魚貝類真牡蠣平均值54.383.09.41.60.64.2208.0575.4594.2
魚貝類烏賊精囊43.582.19.80.20.06.4202.4638.7627.2
魚貝類魚漿(旗魚)110.171.616.81.30.57.8201.71094.61236.5
魚貝類鯊魚皮58.288.813.50.10.0197.0416.2430.3
魚貝類環文蛤46.084.08.71.00.43.7196.2490.6474.7
魚貝類翻車魨魚皮59.193.013.70.10.00.0186.7298.2427.1
魚貝類文蛤36.987.37.60.50.22.7182.8512.4503.9
魚貝類長體油胡瓜魚(柳葉魚)(裹粉未炸)171.361.312.94.91.619.0179.8966.7742.6
魚貝類竹蟶(冷凍)41.587.29.00.30.21.2179.1568.4549.3
魚貝類菲律賓簾蛤36.885.87.50.50.24.1177.0450.0467.0
魚貝類虱目魚腹肉(虱目魚肚)341.856.317.429.69.00.0172.01215.91678.3
魚貝類帶殼真牡蠣(生蠔)59.279.29.81.90.76.7165.9591.8610.0
魚貝類台灣蜆51.279.18.91.40.69.8164.7600.7600.1
魚貝類蝸牛肉77.682.516.70.70.20.0139.7960.3693.6
魚貝類仿刺參35.890.48.20.10.8103.2246.6135.5
魚貝類雪螺40.290.38.90.30.00.096.2683.9487.9
魚貝類南美刺參51.589.812.00.00.00.092.1319.9139.6
魚貝類鯔魚精囊88.881.817.31.70.60.089.1265.9201.5
魚貝類大文蛤20.591.04.40.21.583.2309.4290.0
魚貝類海蜇皮18.770.04.40.02.275.7229.7276.6
魚貝類白海參32.492.77.40.10.00.041.4170.580.1
魚貝類紅海參32.791.97.50.10.00.037.4168.569.5
魚貝類翻車魨腹肉47.588.510.20.40.30.711.4953.7294.3
魚貝類魚翅唇47.591.29.90.60.20.05.8392.5376.0

食品名稱熱量(kcal)水分(g)粗蛋白(g)粗脂肪(g)飽和脂肪(g)總碳水化合物(g)甲硫胺酸(Met)(mg)白胺酸(Leu)(mg)離胺酸(Lys)(mg)
乳品類切片乾酪309.347.218.323.717.55.9554.81924.81523.5
乳品類中脂鮮乳48.589.43.11.91.34.899.0308.3249.7
乳品類全脂凝態發酵乳97.279.03.13.32.313.686.0357.6281.7
乳品類高脂保久乳71.087.73.15.13.53.483.9319.9263.2
乳品類高脂鮮乳72.585.83.24.02.76.178.8346.4280.3
乳品類全脂濃稠發酵乳90.280.64.13.22.111.372.1335.1256.1
乳品類中脂保久乳48.589.33.21.81.44.870.3302.1252.5
乳品類脫脂濃稠發酵乳63.783.93.00.40.312.169.6311.6244.3
乳品類低脂鮮乳43.590.03.11.30.95.067.4277.5226.4
乳品類全脂保久乳62.087.73.03.42.65.167.0302.1249.9
乳品類全脂鮮乳平均值63.287.93.13.62.54.863.1306.4249.0
乳品類高脂鮮羊乳65.387.73.44.02.94.263.0308.3251.0
乳品類高脂凝態發酵乳(纖維強化)94.780.33.23.82.611.961.3354.4286.1
乳品類中脂濃稠發酵乳82.381.62.92.31.612.661.3279.8236.5
乳品類低脂濃稠發酵乳73.382.52.31.10.713.653.0247.1200.0
乳品類中脂鮮羊乳47.790.22.72.42.13.952.2264.4206.0
乳品類脫脂濃稠發酵乳(低熱量)37.090.52.00.10.06.940.1227.5183.1
乳品類保久羊乳58.988.63.03.32.44.529.0193.9136.5
蛋類鴨蛋白47.187.110.80.01.4705.0892.0784.0
蛋類鴨鹹蛋平均值185.566.713.314.14.61.1683.01167.51023.2
蛋類紅面番鴨蛋198.070.913.115.64.90.0664.21150.1841.2
蛋類鴨鹹蛋黃532.724.223.647.615.31.3619.01942.11840.4
蛋類鴨皮蛋158.171.412.811.43.62.7609.9994.8755.7
蛋類雞皮蛋平均值127.274.712.58.12.73.0570.31037.6781.0
蛋類鵝蛋178.870.210.015.05.53.2536.8973.2716.8
蛋類雞蛋白平均值50.087.611.20.10.10.5490.2929.1729.0
蛋類茶葉蛋平均值141.373.313.79.13.12.2451.61075.8907.6
蛋類鴨蛋187.071.213.114.44.60.2448.0963.2798.2
蛋類雞蛋平均值135.475.912.78.93.11.6438.21107.7882.6
蛋類鴿蛋96.280.810.25.71.52.5428.7898.7716.2
蛋類雞蛋黃平均值308.052.815.226.89.23.6421.41377.81163.7
蛋類鵪鶉蛋172.272.112.713.04.81.2403.81095.7953.9
蛋類土雞蛋(2022年取樣)137.075.812.29.33.31.8363.11046.5841.5
蛋類鴨蛋黃346.749.715.830.810.02.0118.01302.01202.0

可不可以直接告訴我一天要吃多少?

好!其實就連我,看到這些數字也是想吐,每天事情夠多了,哪有時間去算這些胺基酸含量啊?所以這個表格只是給大家參考用的啦,沒有真的要大家去算。

目前衛服部公布最新版的「國人膳食營養素參考攝取量」第八版,以成年人來說,不分年齡的男性一天 70 克,女性一天 60 克。但我覺得這實在太粗略了,沒有考慮到體重。

而國際上最普遍的每日建議攝取量,是採用每公斤體重攝取 0.8 克蛋白質,像我是 70 公斤,我一天就要吃 56 克。

但這個數值其實只是低標,只能維持你身體正常運作不出毛病,對超過 40 歲,肌肉會加速流失的中年人來說,我們需要更多的蛋白質,加上「規律運動」,才能刺激肌肉的合成,維持甚至增加肌肉量。

Peter Attia 建議他的病人把每公斤 1.6 克蛋白質當作低標,而他說對那些有在運動,而且腎臟功能正常的人來說,一公斤體重 2.2 克是個不錯的目標。

營養學家同時也是健身冠軍 Layne Norton,則是建議想要以增肌當目標的人群,每日攝取每公斤體重 1.6 克到 2.4 克,這和 Peter Attia 的建議目標差不多。

運動科學家,同時也是美國職業運動員的私人教練 Andy Galpin,建議把增肌當目標的人,每天攝取每公斤體重 1.6 克到 2 克蛋白質。

我目前手邊的這兩本運動科學的教科書中:

美國國家肌力體能訓練協會 NSCA 的建議是:耐力運動員每天要攝取每公斤體重 1~1.6克蛋白質,而力量運動員是 1.4~1.7 克的蛋白質。

美國運動醫學會 ACSM 的建議是:成年運動員每天要攝取每公斤體重 1.2~2 克的蛋白質。

在看了這麼多專家的建議後,因為我目前幾乎每天都有運動,所以我自己是把 1.5~2 倍當成我每天蛋白質的攝取目標。

以我 70 公斤來算,大概就是 100 克到 140 克左右。大家也可以視自己的運動量來抓,我認為每公斤體重 1.2~1.5 克是個不錯的目標。

這裡要請大家特別注意一點,以上的建議攝取量全部都是建立在有規律運動、甚至運動強度很高的運動員身上

如果你平常就沒在運動,隨著年紀變大,肌肉中的 mTOR 就越不容易被啟動,那吃下過多蛋白質,反而會變成多餘的熱量。這點請大家一定要牢記在心喔!

只吃一般食物會不會不夠?

我發現很多想要增肌減脂的人都有一種焦慮,深怕自己蛋白質吃不夠會掉肌肉,事實上,絕大部分的人只要有正常吃三餐,真的不用額外吃補給品,吃下去的蛋白質隨隨便便就超過建議攝取量了!

我隨便算一下你們應該就有概念了,我常常會去買家附近一個麵攤的小菜,一份油豆腐 200 克,每 100 克含有 12.7 克蛋白質,這樣算起來就是 25.4 克。一份豆干四片總共 130 克,每 100 克有 17.4 克蛋白質,所以總共 22.6 克,這兩樣加起來就將近 50 克蛋白質了耶!

我吃 30 克,老婆吃 20 克,每個人再加一顆有 7 克蛋白質的滷蛋,這樣隨便就超過 30 克蛋白質,可以順利啟動 mTOR pathway 了,我還沒有算魚、十穀米、還有湯裡面的料喔!

其實只要吃的是均衡多樣的原型食物,根本就不需要擔心蛋白質吃得不夠,而是要注意可能吃太多!

史丹佛大學醫學院的教授,同時也預防研究中心營養研究主任 Christopher Gardner 指出,絕大部分的美國人,光是從每天吃的食物裡攝取的蛋白質,就已經到達 RDA 的兩倍,也就是超過每公斤 1.5 克了!

他說他有次和腎臟科醫師聊天,那位醫師相當苦惱,不知道要怎麼勸腎臟病的病人把蛋白質攝取量降到每公斤 0.7 克,Garner 教授很驚訝,這不就是差不多 RDA 的量嗎?腎臟科醫師說,對啊,即便患者腎臟都出問題了,也知道不能吃太多蛋白質,還是很難減少蛋白質的攝取量啊!

所以 Gardner 教授一再呼籲大家,不要再糾結蛋白質的攝取量了!

我目前的蛋白質補充策略

在講任何策略以前,一定要先把目的講清楚,我的蛋白質補充策略的目的,是要讓我這個年過 45 的中年人,能夠有效刺激肌肉合成,進而維持甚至增加肌肉量,讓我超過八十歲之後還能繼續在全世界遊山玩水,甚至能輕鬆的把我 15 公斤的孫子舉起來讓他坐我的肩膀。

聽起來視個很明確而且很令人嚮往的目標對吧?

但如果你是二三十歲的年輕人,或者是想要練大肌肌去參加比賽的巨巨們,我的策略可能就不適合你們。

我的策略包含三大部分:總攝取量、每餐分配、以及蛋白質選擇。

第一:攝取量

我目前在輕度運動或休息日那天,是會補充每公斤體重 1.5 克左右的蛋白質,以我的體重就是 100 克左右,而高強度運動日,像是跑間歇或阻力訓練,則是會增加到每公斤體重 1.7~2 克,對我來說就是 120 克到 140 克。

第二:每餐分配

輕度運動或休息日我不會吃早餐,所以第一餐我會吃 40 克蛋白質,下午吃個點心 20 克,晚上也是 40 克。

Layman 教授建議最好把蛋白質集中在第一餐和最後一餐,好讓第一餐的蛋白質把 mTOR 啟動,讓身體從分解狀態轉換成合成狀態,而最後一餐的蛋白質,則會讓肌肉的 mTOR 也在睡眠的前半段,生長激素分泌,身體組織進行修補的時候也能保持啟動。

而有強度訓練那天,我會在訓練後多喝一杯乳清蛋白加牛奶,剛好也是 40 克。

這樣是不是超級簡單明瞭!就是 40 克和 20 克

第三:蛋白質選擇

如果以長壽為最高指導原則,我的蛋白質選擇是植物性蛋白質 > 奶蛋類 > 沒有腳的魚類 > 兩隻腳的禽類 > 四隻腳的豬肉牛肉等紅肉(最後這個我會盡量避免)。

豆腐、豆干、和豆皮等豆類製品一定會出現在我的每一餐,老婆會用青菜炒豆皮或豆干,或者是煎板豆腐或百頁豆腐,而我們也常煮味增湯,裡面都會加一堆豆腐。

反正我就是超愛吃豆類製品,怎麼吃都吃不膩,所以這些大概就會佔一餐 40 克蛋白質的一半了。

剩下的一半我們會用魚類來補上,像我們家餐桌經常會出現的鮭魚,每 100 克就有 23.6克蛋白質了耶,油滋滋的白腹鯖魚少一點,蛋白質大概不到 20 克,但是卻含有爆表的 EPA 啊!

魚類和豆製品加起來,隨隨便便就超過三四十克蛋白質了,我都還沒有算進十穀米、青花菜這些我們家幾乎每天都會吃的東西。

有時候老婆會煮個雞湯,或是煎個雞胸肉來代替魚肉,如果時間比較趕,就煮個白煮蛋,甚至直接去麵攤買小菜。

如果出門在外,現在的選擇就更多了,除了傳統的自助餐外,還有雨後春筍冒出來的健康餐盒,當然便利商店還是大家的好朋友,豆漿、牛奶、茶葉蛋、調味雞胸肉等,都是很方便的選擇。

以上就是這篇文章的內容,因為內容有點多,我再幫大家把重點整理一次:

第一:每天要確保自己攝取足夠的白胺酸、離胺酸、以及甲硫胺酸。

第二:每天的第一餐和最後一餐要吃 2.5~3 克白胺酸,來啟動肌肉中的 mTOR,換算成蛋白質大概就是 25~30 克。

第三:每天總共要攝取 1 克左右的甲硫胺酸,以及 3~4 克的離胺酸,來確保合成肌肉的材料充足。

第四:在有規律運動的前提下,超過 40 歲的成年人,每天攝取每公斤 1.2~1.5 克,如果運動強度夠高,可以增加到 2 克。

第五:盡量選擇均衡的原型食物,蛋白質的攝取一定夠,不需要再額外買乳清蛋白等補給品。

到這裡,我彷彿聽到了很多觀眾冒出很多疑問,像是如果我吃素怎麼辦?或是聽說吃太多蛋白質會傷腎?還有聽說一餐吃太多蛋白質會沒辦法消化?而另外一派則是說要少量多餐,把蛋白質平均分配到每一餐,甚至還有人講說,只要蛋白質有吃夠,就不會掉肌肉!這些所有網路上的說法,我都會在下一篇文章,蛋白質全攻略第三部曲,嘗試全部回答。